MultiCouplingTerms

  • full name: tenpy.networks.terms.MultiCouplingTerms

  • parent module: tenpy.networks.terms

  • type: class

Inheritance Diagram

Inheritance diagram of tenpy.networks.terms.MultiCouplingTerms

Methods

MultiCouplingTerms.__init__(L)

Initialize self.

MultiCouplingTerms.add_coupling_term(…[, …])

Add a two-site coupling term on given MPS sites.

MultiCouplingTerms.add_multi_coupling_term(…)

Add a multi-site coupling term.

MultiCouplingTerms.add_to_graph(graph[, _i, …])

Add terms from coupling_terms to an MPOGraph.

MultiCouplingTerms.coupling_term_handle_JW(…)

Helping function to call before add_multi_coupling_term().

MultiCouplingTerms.from_hdf5(hdf5_loader, …)

Load instance from a HDF5 file.

MultiCouplingTerms.max_range()

Determine the maximal range in coupling_terms.

MultiCouplingTerms.multi_coupling_term_handle_JW(…)

Helping function to call before add_multi_coupling_term().

MultiCouplingTerms.plot_coupling_terms(ax, lat)

“Plot coupling terms into a given lattice.

MultiCouplingTerms.remove_zeros([tol_zero, _d0])

Remove entries close to 0 from coupling_terms.

MultiCouplingTerms.save_hdf5(hdf5_saver, …)

Export self into a HDF5 file.

MultiCouplingTerms.to_TermList()

Convert onsite_terms into a TermList.

MultiCouplingTerms.to_nn_bond_Arrays(sites)

Convert the coupling_terms into Arrays on nearest neighbor bonds.

class tenpy.networks.terms.MultiCouplingTerms(L)[source]

Bases: tenpy.networks.terms.CouplingTerms

Operator names, site indices and strengths representing general M-site coupling terms.

Generalizes the coupling_terms of CouplingTerms to M-site couplings. The structure of the nested dictionary coupling_terms is similar, but we allow an arbitrary recursion depth of the dictionary.

Parameters

L (int) – Number of sites.

L

Number of sites.

Type

int

coupling_terms

Nested dictionaries of the following form:

{i: {('opname_i', 'opname_string_ij'):
        {j: {('opname_j', 'opname_string_jk'):
                {k: {('opname_k', 'opname_string_kl'):
                    ...
                        {l: {'opname_l':
                                strength
                        }   }
                    ...
                }   }
        }   }
}   }

For a M-site coupling, this involves a nesting depth of 2*M dictionaries. Note that always i < j < k < ... < l, but entries with j,k,l >= L are allowed for the case of bc_MPS == 'infinite', when they indicate couplings between different iMPS unit cells.

Type

dict of dict

add_multi_coupling_term(strength, ijkl, ops_ijkl, op_string='Id')[source]

Add a multi-site coupling term.

Parameters
  • strength (float) – The strength of the coupling term.

  • ijkl (list of int) – The MPS indices of the sites on which the operators acts. With i, j, k, … = ijkl, we require that they are ordered ascending, i < j < k < ... and that 0 <= i < N_sites. Inidces >= N_sites indicate couplings between different unit cells of an infinite MPS.

  • ops_ijkl (list of str) – Names of the involved operators on sites i, j, k, ….

  • op_string ((list of) str) – Names of the operator to be inserted between the operators, e.g., op_string[0] is inserted between i and j. A single name holds for all in-between segments.

multi_coupling_term_handle_JW(strength, term, sites, op_string=None)[source]

Helping function to call before add_multi_coupling_term().

Handle/figure out Jordan-Wigner strings if needed.

Parameters
  • strength (float) – The strength of the term.

  • term (list of (str, int)) – List of tuples (op_i, i) where i is the MPS index of the site the operator named op_i acts on. We require the operators to be sorted (strictly ascending) by sites. If necessary, call order_combine_term() beforehand.

  • sites (list of Site) – Defines the local Hilbert space for each site. Used to check whether the operators need Jordan-Wigner strings.

  • op_string (None | str) –

    Operator name to be used as operator string between the operators, or None if the Jordan Wigner string should be figured out.

    Warning

    None figures out for each segment between the operators, whether a Jordan-Wigner string is needed. This is different from a plain 'JW', which just applies a string on each segment!

Returns

Arguments for MultiCouplingTerms.add_multi_coupling_term() such that the added term corresponds to the parameters of this function.

Return type

strength, ijkl, ops_ijkl, op_string

max_range()[source]

Determine the maximal range in coupling_terms.

Returns

max_range – The maximum of j - i for the i, j occuring in a term of coupling_terms.

Return type

int

add_to_graph(graph, _i=None, _d1=None, _label_left=None)[source]

Add terms from coupling_terms to an MPOGraph.

Parameters
  • graph (MPOGraph) – The graph into which the terms from coupling_terms should be added.

  • _i (None) – Should not be given; only needed for recursion.

  • _d1 (None) – Should not be given; only needed for recursion.

  • _label_left (None) – Should not be given; only needed for recursion.

remove_zeros(tol_zero=1e-15, _d0=None)[source]

Remove entries close to 0 from coupling_terms.

Parameters
  • tol_zero (float) – Entries in coupling_terms with strength < tol_zero are considered to be zero and removed.

  • _d0 (None) – Should not be given; only needed for recursion.

to_TermList()[source]

Convert onsite_terms into a TermList.

Returns

term_list – Representation of the terms as a list of terms.

Return type

TermList

add_coupling_term(strength, i, j, op_i, op_j, op_string='Id')[source]

Add a two-site coupling term on given MPS sites.

Parameters
  • strength (float) – The strength of the coupling term.

  • i (int) – The MPS indices of the two sites on which the operator acts. We require 0 <= i < N_sites and i < j, i.e., op_i acts “left” of op_j. If j >= N_sites, it indicates couplings between unit cells of an infinite MPS.

  • j (int) – The MPS indices of the two sites on which the operator acts. We require 0 <= i < N_sites and i < j, i.e., op_i acts “left” of op_j. If j >= N_sites, it indicates couplings between unit cells of an infinite MPS.

  • op1 (str) – Names of the involved operators.

  • op2 (str) – Names of the involved operators.

  • op_string (str) – The operator to be inserted between i and j.

coupling_term_handle_JW(strength, term, sites, op_string=None)[source]

Helping function to call before add_multi_coupling_term().

Parameters
  • strength (float) – The strength of the coupling term.

  • term ([(str, int), (str, int)]) – List of two tuples (op, i) where i is the MPS index of the site the operator named op acts on.

  • sites (list of Site) – Defines the local Hilbert space for each site. Used to check whether the operators need Jordan-Wigner strings.

  • op_string (None | str) –

    Operator name to be used as operator string between the operators, or None if the Jordan Wigner string should be figured out.

    Warning

    None figures out for each segment between the operators, whether a Jordan-Wigner string is needed. This is different from a plain 'JW', which just applies a string on each segment!

Returns

Arguments for MultiCouplingTerms.add_multi_coupling_term() such that the added term corresponds to the parameters of this function.

Return type

strength, i, j, op_i, op_j, op_string

classmethod from_hdf5(hdf5_loader, h5gr, subpath)[source]

Load instance from a HDF5 file.

This method reconstructs a class instance from the data saved with save_hdf5().

Parameters
  • hdf5_loader (Hdf5Loader) – Instance of the loading engine.

  • h5gr (Group) – HDF5 group which is represent the object to be constructed.

  • subpath (str) – The name of h5gr with a '/' in the end.

Returns

obj – Newly generated class instance containing the required data.

Return type

cls

plot_coupling_terms(ax, lat, style_map='default', common_style={'linestyle': '--'}, text=None, text_pos=0.4)[source]

“Plot coupling terms into a given lattice.

This function plots the coupling_terms

Parameters
  • ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes) – The axes on which we should plot.

  • lat (Lattice) – The lattice for plotting the couplings, most probably the M.lat of the corresponding model M, see lat.

  • style_map (function | None) – Function which get’s called with arguments i, j, op_i, op_string, op_j, strength for each two-site coupling and should return a keyword-dictionary with the desired plot-style for this coupling. By default (None), the linewidth is given by the absolute value of strength, and the linecolor depends on the phase of strength (using the hsv colormap).

  • common_style (dict) – Common style, which overwrites values of the dictionary returned by style_map. A 'label' is only used for the first plotted line.

  • text (format_string | None) – If not None, we add text labeling the couplings in the plot. Available keywords are i, j, op_i, op_string, op_j, strength as well as strength_abs, strength_angle, strength_real.

  • text_pos (float) – Specify where to put the text on the line between i (0.0) and j (1.0), e.g. 0.5 is exactly in the middle between i and j.

See also

tenpy.models.lattice.Lattice.plot_sites()

plot the sites of the lattice.

save_hdf5(hdf5_saver, h5gr, subpath)[source]

Export self into a HDF5 file.

This method saves all the data it needs to reconstruct self with from_hdf5().

This implementation saves the content of __dict__ with save_dict_content(), storing the format under the attribute 'format'.

Parameters
  • hdf5_saver (Hdf5Saver) – Instance of the saving engine.

  • h5gr (:class`Group`) – HDF5 group which is supposed to represent self.

  • subpath (str) – The name of h5gr with a '/' in the end.

to_nn_bond_Arrays(sites)[source]

Convert the coupling_terms into Arrays on nearest neighbor bonds.

Parameters

sites (list of Site) – Defines the local Hilbert space for each site. Used to translate the operator names into Array.

Returns

H_bond – The coupling_terms rewritten as sum_i H_bond[i] for MPS indices i. H_bond[i] acts on sites (i-1, i), None represents 0. Legs of each H_bond[i] are ['p0', 'p0*', 'p1', 'p1*'].

Return type

list of {Array | None}