Inheritance Diagram

Inheritance diagram of tenpy.algorithms.mpo_evolution.ExpMPOEvolution


ExpMPOEvolution.__init__(psi, model, ...)

ExpMPOEvolution.calc_U(dt[, order, ...])

Calculate self._U_MPO.

ExpMPOEvolution.evolve(N_steps, dt)

Evolve by N_steps*dt.



Return necessary data to resume a run() interrupted at a checkpoint.


Prepare an evolution step.


Resume a run that was interrupted.


Perform a (real-)time evolution of psi by N_steps * dt.

ExpMPOEvolution.run_evolution(N_steps, dt)

Perform a (real-)time evolution of psi by N_steps * dt.

ExpMPOEvolution.switch_engine(other_engine, *)

Initialize algorithm from another algorithm instance of a different class.

Class Attributes and Properties


whether the algorithm supports time-dependent H


class tenpy.algorithms.mpo_evolution.ExpMPOEvolution(psi, model, options, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: TimeEvolutionAlgorithm

Time evolution of an MPS using the W_I or W_II approximation for exp(H dt).

[zaletel2015] described a method to obtain MPO approximations \(W_I\) and \(W_{II}\) for the exponential U = exp(i H dt) of an MPO H, implemented in make_U_I() and make_U_II(). This class uses it for real-time evolution.

Parameters are the same as for Algorithm.


config ExpMPOEvolution
option summary


Specifies which approximation is applied. The default 'II' is more precise. [...]

chi_list (from Sweep) in Sweep.reset_stats

By default (``None``) this feature is disabled. [...]

chi_list_reactivates_mixer (from Sweep) in Sweep.sweep

If True, the mixer is reset/reactivated each time the bond dimension growth [...]

combine (from Sweep) in Sweep

Whether to combine legs into pipes. This combines the virtual and [...]

compression_method (from ApplyMPO) in MPO.apply

Mandatory. [...]

dt (from TimeEvolutionAlgorithm) in TimeEvolutionAlgorithm

Minimal time step by which to evolve.

init_env_data (from Sweep) in DMRGEngine.init_env

Dictionary as returned by ``self.env.get_initialization_data()`` from [...]

lanczos_params (from Sweep) in Sweep

Lanczos parameters as described in :cfg:config:`Lanczos`.

m_temp (from ZipUpApplyMPO) in MPO.apply_zipup

bond dimension will be truncated to `m_temp * chi_max`

max_sweeps (from VariationalCompression) in VariationalCompression

Minimum and maximum number of sweeps to perform for the compression.

min_sweeps (from VariationalCompression) in VariationalCompression

Minimum and maximum number of sweeps to perform for the compression.

mixer (from Sweep) in DMRGEngine.mixer_activate

Specifies which :class:`Mixer` to use, if any. [...]

mixer_params (from Sweep) in DMRGEngine.mixer_activate

Mixer parameters as described in :cfg:config:`Mixer`.

N_steps (from TimeEvolutionAlgorithm) in TimeEvolutionAlgorithm

Number of time steps `dt` to evolve by in :meth:`run`. [...]


Order of the algorithm. The total error up to time `t` scales as ``O(t*dt^o [...]

orthogonal_to (from Sweep) in DMRGEngine.init_env

Deprecated in favor of the `orthogonal_to` function argument (forwarded fro [...]

preserve_norm (from TimeEvolutionAlgorithm) in TimeEvolutionAlgorithm

Whether the state will be normalized to its initial norm after each time st [...]

start_env (from Sweep) in DMRGEngine.init_env

Number of sweeps to be performed without optimization to update the environment.

start_env_sites (from VariationalCompression) in VariationalCompression

Number of sites to contract for the inital LP/RP environment in case of inf [...]

start_time (from TimeEvolutionAlgorithm) in TimeEvolutionAlgorithm

Initial value for :attr:`evolved_time`.


Initial truncation error for :attr:`trunc_err`

tol_theta_diff (from VariationalCompression) in VariationalCompression

Stop after less than `max_sweeps` sweeps if the 1-site wave function change [...]

trunc_params (from ApplyMPO) in MPO.apply

Truncation parameters as described in :cfg:config:`truncation`.

trunc_weight (from ZipUpApplyMPO) in MPO.apply_zipup

reduces cut for Schmidt values to `trunc_weight * svd_min`

option start_trunc_err: TruncationError

Initial truncation error for trunc_err

option approximation: 'I' | 'II'

Specifies which approximation is applied. The default ‘II’ is more precise. See [zaletel2015] and make_U() for more details.

option order: int

Order of the algorithm. The total error up to time t scales as O(t*dt^order). Implemented are order = 1 and order = 2.


Optional parameters, see run() for more details




Indicating how long psi has been evolved, psi = exp(-i * evolved_time * H) psi(t=0).




The error of the represented state which is introduced due to the truncation during the sequence of update steps




The MPS, time evolved in-place.




The model defining the Hamiltonian.




Exponentiated H_MPO;


list of MPO


A dictionary containing the information of the latest created _U. We won’t recalculate _U if those parameters didn’t change.




Prepare an evolution step.

This method is used to prepare repeated calls of evolve() given the model. For example, it may generate approximations of U=exp(-i H dt). To avoid overhead, it may cache the result depending on parameters/options; but it should always regenerate it if force_prepare_evolve is set.


dt (float) – The time step to be used.

calc_U(dt, order=2, approximation='II')[source]

Calculate self._U_MPO.

This function calculates the approximation U ~= exp(-i dt_ H) with dt_ = dt` for ``order=1, or dt_ = (1 - 1j)/2 dt and dt_ = (1 + 1j)/2 dt for order=2.

  • dt (float) – Size of the time-step used in calculating _U

  • order (int) – The order of the algorithm. Only 1 and 2 are allowed.

  • approximation ('I' or 'II') – Type of approximation for the time evolution operator.

evolve(N_steps, dt)[source]

Evolve by N_steps*dt.

Subclasses may override this with a more efficient way of do N_steps update_step.

  • N_steps (int) – The number of time steps by dt to take at once.

  • dt (float) – Small time step. Might be ignored if already used in prepare_update().


trunc_err – Sum of truncation errors introduced during evolution.

Return type



Return necessary data to resume a run() interrupted at a checkpoint.

At a checkpoint, you can save psi, model and options along with the data returned by this function. When the simulation aborts, you can resume it using this saved data with:

eng = AlgorithmClass(psi, model, options, resume_data=resume_data)

An algorithm which doesn’t support this should override resume_run to raise an Error.


sequential_simulations (bool) – If True, return only the data for re-initializing a sequential simulation run, where we “adiabatically” follow the evolution of a ground state (for variational algorithms), or do series of quenches (for time evolution algorithms); see run_seq_simulations().


resume_data – Dictionary with necessary data (apart from copies of psi, model, options) that allows to continue the simulation from where we are now. It might contain an explicit copy of psi.

Return type



Resume a run that was interrupted.

In case we saved an intermediate result at a checkpoint, this function allows to resume the run() of the algorithm (after re-initialization with the resume_data). Since most algorithms just have a while loop with break conditions, the default behaviour implemented here is to just call run().


Perform a (real-)time evolution of psi by N_steps * dt.

You probably want to call this in a loop along with measurements. The recommended way to do this is via the RealTimeEvolution.

run_evolution(N_steps, dt)[source]

Perform a (real-)time evolution of psi by N_steps * dt.

This is the inner part of run() without the logging. For parameters see TimeEvolutionAlgorithm.

classmethod switch_engine(other_engine, *, options=None, **kwargs)[source]

Initialize algorithm from another algorithm instance of a different class.

You can initialize one engine from another, not too different subclasses. Internally, this function calls get_resume_data() to extract data from the other_engine and then initializes the new class.

Note that it transfers the data without making copies in most case; even the options! Thus, when you call run() on one of the two algorithm instances, it will modify the state, environment, etc. in the other. We recommend to make the switch as engine = OtherSubClass.switch_engine(engine) directly replacing the reference.

  • cls (class) – Subclass of Algorithm to be initialized.

  • other_engine (Algorithm) – The engine from which data should be transferred. Another, but not too different algorithm subclass-class; e.g. you can switch from the TwoSiteDMRGEngine to the OneSiteDMRGEngine.

  • options (None | dict-like) – If not None, these options are used for the new initialization. If None, take the options from the other_engine.

  • **kwargs – Further keyword arguments for class initialization. If not defined, resume_data is collected with get_resume_data().

time_dependent_H = False

whether the algorithm supports time-dependent H