# U_close_1¶

tenpy.linalg.random_matrix.U_close_1(size, a=0.01)[source]

return an random orthogonal matrix ‘close’ to the identity.

Parameters
• size (tuple) – (n, n), where n is the dimension of the output matrix.

• a (float) – Parameter determining how close the result is to the identity. $$\lim_{a \rightarrow 0} <|O-E|>_a = 0$$ (where E is the identity).

Returns

U – Unitary matrix close to the identiy (for small a). Eigenvalues are chosen i.i.d. as exp(1.j*a*x) with x uniform in [-1, 1].

Return type

ndarray